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Glossary

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This glossary lists the terms used in this grammar. It also gives the equivalents used in other grammars. This grammar uses new and simplified terms.
         
adjective
 
a big house

words used to add information to nouns

 

adverb

 
He was walking quickly.

words used to add information to verbs, adjectives and to add information to sentences

 
collocation
 
make a cake; little boy; petrol station

words which are often used togther: verb+noun; adjective+noun; noun+noun etc

 
did verb form

past simple; second form

I went shopping yesterday.

the verb form describing a distant event, state or concept

 
distance
 
for example the physical distance between here and there eg five kilometres

there are different sets of distances in English associated with verb and adverb use

 
do verb form

base form; first form; bare infinitive; infinitive; infinitive without to

I live here.

the verb which contains the information about the action, state etc

 
do-ing adjective
 

It was very exciting.

the adjective describing a process which has started but not finished

 
do-ing noun

gerund; verbal noun

Reading is good for children.

a noun describing a process or activity

 

do-ing verb form

-ing participle; present participle

I'm living here.

the verb form describing a process which has started but not finished

 
done adjective
 

He is very excited.

the adjective describing a done event: he is very excited because something in the past has made him excited

 
done verb form

-ed participle; past participle; third form

I have lived here for ten years.

the verb form describing a 'done' (finished/completed) event

 
event time
 
I left school in 1983.

the time something happens - this might be different from utterance time

 
main verb

lexical verb

I live here.

the do form of the verb, which contains the information about the action, state etc

 
marker verb

auxillary verb

be, do and have verbs and may; might; can; could; will; would; shall; should; must

verbs used to make complex verb forms and to show opinion (certainty, probablity etc)

 
modal marker verb

modal auxillary verb

may; might; can; could; will; would; shall; should; must

verbs used to show opinion of events (certainty, obligation, probability etc)

 
object
 
She made a cake.

the example sentence has the pattern: subject +verb+direct object

 
preposition
 
at; in; on

a word which introduces a prepositional phrase

 
prepositional phrase
 
at home

a phrase containing a preposition use to add information to a sentence about time, place etc

 
primary marker verb

primary auxiliary verb

be, do and have verbs

verbs which are used to make complex verb forms like: present progressive, present perfect and passive forms and question forms

 
primary verb
 
be, do and have verbs

these three verbs act as main verbs and marker verbs

 
     
 
 
subject
 
She made a cake.

the example sentence has the pattern: subject +verb+direct object

 
time
   
 
 
utterance
   

something which is said

 
utterance time
   

the time when someone says something - always now

 
verb
main verb; lexical verb

She made a cake.

a word which contains information about an action, state etc
 
word
   
 
 

 

 

 

copyright Robert A. Buckmaster 2008